Thursday, December 26, 2019

Can Income Inequality be Solved - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 810 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/07/01 Category Finance Essay Level High school Tags: Income Inequality Essay Did you like this example? Income inequality is the unequal distribution of household or individual income across the various participants in an economy. It is often presented as the percentage of income related to a percentage of the population. It is an inequality based on the economy. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Can Income Inequality be Solved?" essay for you Create order Income inequality is one of the reasons why the gap between rich and poor in America is growing. There are many reasons for income inequality such as education, technology lower economic growth, one sector dominance, and capitalism. Most of the families with single householder have to work overtime to run their family because of low wages. With income inequality not only lower-class are being hurt, its middle class too with low wages. However, If this problem does not get solved then the demand of job will grow to pay for expenses. Therefore, income inequality should be addressed by increasing the minimum wage, invest more money in education and stop using the robot in automobile factories. Education is one of the reasons for income inequality in the United States. Education is the key to success. It makes space for everyone to get a better job either you poor or rich it doesnt matter if you have a higher education you can get a better job. If education is available for everyone then, people can do well-paying jobs that can reduce income inequality. If the government makes more fund for education and make it free. So, everyone can get access to higher education. Therefore, it can be one of the ways to stop income inequality. The countries that have done a better job increasing their educational attainments like Canada and Sweden, have also seen bigger broad-based income gains than the United States. ( David Leonhardt ). Which means that Canada and Sweden are mostly focusing on educating its a citizen so they can balance income inequality by offering better wages. For every challenge, we are face unemployment, poverty, crime, income growth, income inequality, productiv ity, competitiveness a great education is a major component of the solution. ( Bruce Rauner). In this quote, the author is saying that education is the major component to solve the income inequality. Which is why the United States should focus on making its educational system better in order to reduce income inequality. Technology has played a huge role in income inequality. Technology has caused associations like travel organizations, bank employees and different types of center administration to close somewhere near conveying a progressively advantageous approach to utilize those administrations. For example, robotization of assembling items has diminished openings for work, say producing a vehicle was finished by human turns before, however now because of the assistance of technology, the work has been done quicker and with less labor. The hourly wage of a robot such as Baxter has been reported to be around the US $4.32 per hour, less than the average hourly wage of US $23.32 paid to humans in US manufacturing. ( Paula Nagler ). In this quote, the author means that the wage of a robot is way cheaper than humans. Therefore, owners started using a robot instead of humans in the workplace. We should care and stop it because it is the biggest reason for income inequality. It makes the owner richer and the worker is getting poorer. Therefore if the government makes a law for every automobile companies to stop using a robot in the workplace and if they used they should pay fines and if also increase the minimum wage so, we can reduce the income inequality. On the other hand, some people claim that income inequality has been going forever. Every year, the village produced the same amount of goods for the same number of people to divide. (David Leonhardt). In this quote, the author means that every year people are making the same amount of goods. So, they will never get better goods and cant help to stop the income inequality. The people who make more money they make more goods. And the poor people not getting enough goods to increase their investments and cant make more money. Therefore, the poor are getting more poor and rich getting richer. This is started happening in the US after the great depression and it is still happening. So, they think income inequality has been going forever it wont be solved. In conclusion, from research and article research we can say income inequality is a phenomenon that is running forever and will continue running in the future. But if we take actions and work together to stop the reason for income inequality. We can solve it. And we must do it because income inequality makes lacker social mobility, shrinking middle class, living standards and it also bad for our economy because the less tax government get from us the less money goes on education, healthcare, etc. Therefore, we should work together and save our country from income inequality.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

The Unglamorous Side of War Depicted in Remarques All...

Why does the world need to kill two million men just because two countries can’t agree with each other? War is devastating to countries and most indefinitely to individuals and soldiers. A war can ruin families, friendships, education, economy, and the minds of innocent people. Most young men, who were just approaching manhood, were pulled of their innocence of childhood, and thrown into a world of rage and destruction. Soldiers that luckily survive a horrific war often find their lives turned completely upside down since they enlisted, and sometimes it is just impossible to forget the vicious past and start over again as a civilian. Many older men believe that wars being fought are wars of dignity and glory, but truthfully, wars are†¦show more content†¦Another point that the author creates about the negative aspects of war is that there is never an abundant supply of food to support the well-being of all the men out there in the war. In the novel, the men who were used to eating decent meals every day before the war face severe hardships because in the army, they do not receive opulent nor tasty rations. â€Å"Long time since you’ve had anything decent to eat, eh?† Kat asks one of the [new recruits]. â€Å"For breakfast, turnip-bread, ã… ¡lunch, turnip-stew†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦it’s nothing new for it to be made of sawdust.† (Remarque 36) If these poor soldiers had better nourishments and more rest, the already-harsh environment would have been easier to survive. Many more recruits have actually died from a lack of sleep and food than from actual hand-to-hand combats. Another issue about the war is the complete loss of sanitation, or hygiene. â€Å"We must look out for our bread. The rats have become more numerous lately because the trenches are no longer in good condition.† (Remarque 101, 102) Because it is very unclean and pathogens float all over the place, various soldiers have deceased from an i nfection somewhere in the body. Maybe, just maybe, if the army had more suitable circumstances for the men in the war, fewer soldiers would have died. In addition, a concept that Remarque makes regarding the adverse effects of wars is that wars have killed many frank young men, who

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Leaderâ€Member Exchange Theory (LMX Theory) - Case Study free essay sample

Based on the principle of LMX theory, what observation would you make about Carly’s leadership at Mills , Smith and Peter.The LMX theory is a theory that focuses on the interaction between the leader and the follower. Based on the case study, I observed that Carly used the in-group leadership style at Mills, Smith and Peter. She gave more attention to her preferred team and cause the other team members to be unhappy. She may be considered an ineffective leader because for better result on task to be achieved she needs to all the teams equal attention. Is there an in-group and out-group, and, if so, which are they?In the case study, there are both in-groups and out-groups. Jack and his team fall in to the in-group category while Terri, Julie and Sarah fall in the category of the out group. They fall under this category because they have observed that Carly has picked Jack as her favorite and they are unhappy about it. We will write a custom essay sample on Leader–Member Exchange Theory (LMX Theory) Case Study or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In what way is Carly’s relationship with the four groups productive or counterproductive to the overall goals of the agency?Carly’s relationship with four teams is both productive and counterproductive. Jack’s team is productive because they are willing to go the extra mile to get the work done for Carly . However the other three teams Terri, Julie and Sarah are counterproductive they are unhappy and are likely not going to go the extra mile for Carly. But, I also observed that Sarah may fall under the category of productive group because she may have observed some of these favoritism by Carly but still gets the work done regardless. Do you think Carly should change her approach toward the associate directors? If so, what should she do differently?From the case study , the company is considered as one company. Therefore, Carly should change her approach towards the associate directors to enable them achieve more for the organization.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Performance Management at Vitality Health Case free essay sample

In order to perform the job requirements an individual must exhibit a number of different skills and talents. For example, the person who fills the position must do the following: * Decide whether the research has commercial application * Move patent applications forward * Consult with management on corporate strategy * Teach, manage, and assist subordinate researchers * Develop top-notch scientific research In order to be successful in performing the aforementioned duties, the applicant must have high level research skills, interpersonal skills, leadership skills, management skills, organizational skills, marketing skills, time management skills, technical scientific knowledge, etc. Task Identity- 7 Justification: In order to successfully fill this job, an individual must understand each of the necessary tasks in performing a given project. An individual must be able to see their own projects from start to finish and the ability to identify specific tasks is essential to do so. Task Significance 6 Justification: Vitality expects their researcher to have an impact science. We will write a custom essay sample on Performance Management at Vitality Health Case or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The researcher can do so by producing high-quality scientific literature and presenting at conferences for scientific literature. Vitality expects the scientific contributions of the researcher to be worthy of receiving patents. The contributions of the research can have a large impact on people, on women specifically. As we know, cosmetic products are important to many women. Also, nutritional supplements can help to improve an individual’s overall health. As a result, research breakthroughs at Vitality can have a large and lasting impact. Autonomy 6 Justification: Overall, the scientist at Vitality seems to have complete freedom over the projects that he/she wishes to take on. The project must meet the following requirements: aligns with corporate strategy, receives management’s approval and has commercial applications. Feedback Scores 4 Justification: Currently, evaluations are conducted once a year. It may be desirable to conduct evaluations more frequently. Also, there is some question as to the appropriateness of managers’ ratings. Some feel that they are timid in their ratings in order to avoid conflict. It has been reported that managers are telling the employees they received one rating, while officially giving them another, or by rotating the good ratings to different employees each year. MPS = (6 + 7 + 6)/3 * 6 * 4 = 152 2. Both the equity and expectancy theories of motivation can be used to illustrate why scientist turnover at Vitality Health was primarily occurring among the more productive scientists under the old performance management system. Equity Theory: Equity theory helps us to understand why the scientist turnover at Vitality Health was primarily associated with the more productive scientists leaving for better job opportunities. If applying the equity theory of motivation, a scientist at Vitality Health would determine the fairness of what he/she is receiving relative to what he/she is putting in, compared to others. For example, Vitality Health used a rating system consisting of 13 different rating levels. However, managers were guilty of abusing the system. They were afraid to offend employees. As a result, scientists ended up with rather homogenous ratings regardless of their actual performance. In other words, regardless of top-performing scientists’ input (performance), their performance ratings (output) were similar to the performance ratings of the low-performing scientists. Furthermore, these performance ratings were used to determine merit-based wage increases. Therefore, even though actual performance was different between low and top performers, due to similar performance ratings, merit-based wage increases were similar. Consequently, top-performing scientists felt that they were treated poorly in relation to their contribution. The inequity felt by high-performing scientist helps to explain the turnover of such scientists at Vitality Health. Expectancy Theory: Salaries tended to be 7%-8% higher at Vitality Health than the competition. However, the pay model was focused on a flat salary. Therefore, there were little to no provisions for bonuses or alternative forms of compensation. The expectancy theory of motivation is related in a few ways. When applying the expectancy theory, scientists at Vitality Health would ask themselves three questions. First, â€Å"Will my effort lead to high performance? † Scientists had complete control over their effort. As a result, it is probably safe to say that greater effort would lead to greater performance for a scientist. Second, â€Å"Will performance lead to outcomes? † In other words, will increased performance lead to higher compensation or higher performance ratings? In the case of scientists at Vitality Health, based on the homogenous performance ratings and flat-salary pay model, it is unlikely that higher performance would lead to either of these outcomes. The third and final questions scientists would ask themselves is, â€Å"Do I find the outcomes desirable? † Do the high-performing scientists want to be rated the same as their low-performing counterparts? Do they want to be compensated similarly? If money were an outcome, is that the compensation I desire for my effort and performance? Although, scientists can control their effort, and thereby control their performance, the fact that performance leads to unfavorable and undesirable outcomes illustrates why scientist turnover at Vitality Health was primarily occurring among high-performing scientists. 3. Old SystemNew System A-E system, managers didn’t want to offend employees, so they only gave B and C ratings| The rating levels are limited to four options so all the levels are used and comparison is more visible| Job Evaluation Points for compensation, with a value multiple, based on job position| Uses metrics to rate employees efforts and achievements instead of just job description| Percentage pay raise is based on where they currently stand in industry pay grade. People paid above industry average get smaller percent raise than equivalent performance by someone who is paid below industry average. Employees are compared to one another rather than to preset industry standards, or compared to arbitrary grade marks| No provision for bonuses, flat rates across the table, but all were at 7-8% over competition| Forces managers to rank their employees above or below each other| | Compensation is now not only cash based, but equity is involved| | Performance-based compensation| The biggest difference seems to be that the old system would only correctly compensate someone for their efforts the first time they produce well. After that, their compensation increases at a slower rate than peers regardless of their effectiveness. Even though people were paid 7-8% over the industry averages, the structure of the compensation made people feel undervalued and eventually led many to devalue the marginal contribution to the company. The new system is an attempt to focus the pay on performance measurements and eliminate free-riding by underperforming employees. By increasing the correlation of performance to compensation, the marginal efforts of an employee becomes more valuable to them. If the MPS for Ramp;D scientists were 160, the new performance management system would encourage more productivity. A high MPS means a specific skill set with a large amount of task identity. As such, the system that is more focused on rewarding achievements rather than job title would promote more focused effort from scientists. Also, it would be difficult to compare the scientists to the industry because of their abstract job description. If the MPS for Ramp;D scientists were 60, the old performance management system would encourage more productivity. If the position scored lower in task identity and autonomy, and thus merited a lower MPS, a system based on job position rather than performance would be more appropriate. The recommended changes to improve the effectiveness of the performance management system * Make performance reviews quarterly rather than annually. This will increase the usefulness of them and take out the pressure of having them tied so closely to compensation benefits. * Under the new rating categories, the â€Å"achiever† ranking is too full of employees with a select few above and a pitiful few below. This does not fix the previous issue of all of the rankings of employees being grouped together. One alternative, is to rank the employees as individuals, AND as teams. This way they feel mutually responsible for a positive outcome and nobody takes it personally if a poor rating is received. * It appears one of the main complaints against the new system is that it is too comparative from employee to employee. One solution is to set up job goals/achievements that are objective that each employee must achieve in order to obtain their salary. Then, they may set extra goals to reach for if they desire further compensation in bonus format. This would ensure that compensation is based on each individual’s effort, rather than how they compare to other employees. 5. Effective goals that Ramp;D managers could set for Ramp;D scientists: * Increase personal annual breakthroughs by 20 percent in the next year. * Publish two articles, annually, in noteworthy scientific journals or present at two noteworthy scientific conferences. This will improve the personal skills of the Ramp;D scientist, and promote the name and research of Vitality Health in the public sphere. * Improve at least two existing products annually such that the products achieve a 15% sales increase within 3 months of the improvement. * Participate in the development of patents, and successfully receive one patent each year.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Summary of Organizing Genius The Secrets of Creative Collaboration was by Warren Bennis and Patricia Ward Biederman

Summary of Organizing Genius The Secrets of Creative Collaboration was by Warren Bennis and Patricia Ward Biederman The book is divided into eight topics that explore the concept of personal organization. Bennis and Biederman (1997) elaborate how good organization can lead to improved performance. It may also result into enormous success by an individual.  The first chapter discusses the importance of combined efforts in dealing with a challenge.Advertising We will write a custom book review sample on Summary of Organizing Genius: The Secrets of Creative Collaboration was by Warren Bennis and Patricia Ward Biederman specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The authors are completely against individual success. Unfortunately, they note that most Americans believe in the ideal of individualism. They argue that through the American world can achieve a lot through teamwork. They propose that as the world continues to become a global village, individualism cannot prevail. The second chapter analyses a film industry with the aim of ascertaining the importance of group work. For a movie to be successful, a lot of group work is needed. No individual person has the capability of producing a movie or a film. The combined creativity in these areas can produce impressive results. The level of collaboration witnessed in the film industry was instrumental in attaining the greatest levels of creativity. This chapter also demonstrates how good leadership skills and competences can lead into significant growth in any business enterprise.  The third chapter analyzes the growth and development of computing knowledge. The emergence of major industry players in computer technology is also elaborated in this chapter. This reinforces the importance of great leadership in the success of a business venture. A collection of individuals with expertise skills and knowledge alongside great leadership have enabled the evolution of computing technology. Competition is also mentioned in this chapter as a major way through which creativity and innovation activat ed.  The fourth chapter explores how positive co-operation can build hope. A case study of President Clinton’s campaign teams has been used to elaborate the importance of collaborating. For instance, Clinton’s campaign teams brought harmonized great minds together for the sole purpose of convincing the Americans that he was the best candidate for presidency. The achievement realized in this collaboration is attributed to proper organization. In addition, excellent leadership skills also played a vital role. These case scenarios highlight the significance of collaborating whenever certain goals have been set to be achieved.Advertising Looking for book review on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The 1960 scientific research project has also been noted as another example of significant achievement that resulted from co-operation among individuals with a common goal. The achievements of this project revolutionized the defense forces in America.  The Manhattan project wasted a lot of talent when it excluded women in executing its functions. This chapter explores how women can play a vital role in the success of business organizations. Moreover, inadequate educational opportunity for women has led to great loss of the talent female population.  The last chapters expound the lessons learned from the case scenarios and how they can be applied in leadership. Various ways through which these lessons can be applied within groups of people have been discussed. The authors assert that the book offers a rich source of information that can be used to guide team work and small groups in organizations.  This final chapter offers general advice on how to guarantee success of a business venture. The authors are quite categorical that managers should hire people who are skilled and talented. The management should also ignore gender bias when recruiting employees. Reference Bennis, W. Biederman, P. W. (1997). Organizing Genius: The Secrets of Creative Collaboration. New York, NY: Addison Wesley Publishing Company.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Psychology Coursework

Psychology Coursework Psychology Coursework Psychology Coursework. What Do The Students Expect? Students, who want to unite their lives with psychology in the future must get a masters degree on this subject, therefore they should obtain psychology courses and write a psychology coursework: After the graduation they can work as doctors, teachers and have other occupation which is connected with peoples psychology. Their career depends on the doing their psychology courseworkproperly, so it is an important step in their education and it should be treated corresponding. There are different types of the assignments which can be done by the student for the obtaining the psychology degree. Format For Psychological Coursework A psychology courseworkcan be written in the form of essay, dissertation, term paper and other study assignments. As it must cover a plenty of literature material, so the demonstration by the students of their talent of disposing facts and analyzing material should be on the high level If the practical part is present, the student should observe the actions and the results of the experiments and then to put down these clinical observations in the form of the report to their psychology coursework And the students should remember that any theoretical statements should be supported by the hands-on experiment If the student is insuch a level of education that there is a turn for the dissertation, so it should be done perfectly and have much efforts for the better understanding of the problem. The student should be deeply absorbed in the issued problem and the practical part is a must-be requirement here. But it is not the only thing which is the element of the dissertation or extended psychology coursework. The students are expected to show view of other scholars and make a conclusion, which study is more appropriate for the demonstration of the solution to the problem or to the hide question within the topic of the assignment. There is another one type of the psychology coursework, which can be called as case study, when a student should do a research basing on the profile of the patient of a group of them. There must be a lot of arguments and the psychological ability of patients should be observed in the different situations. Their behavior, their justifying of the done actions should be considered also. Then a student can offer a suggestion how the mental problem or life conditions could be improved and the danger of the mental illnesses can be avoided. Areas Of Psychology There some areas of psychology, which can be observed by students, they are: Abnormal psychology Applied psychology Behavioral psychology Child psychology Clinical psychology Developmental psychology Educational psychology Experimental psychology general psychology Gestalt psychology Social psychology. So if you are not sure in the efforts, so you can entrust the writing to our writing service. We should notice that no customer had any complaint about our service. Our experts can perform any order concerning any topic or form of the assignment. Good luck to you and be happy with us! Related posts: Informative Essay Writing How to Write a Good College Essay? Essay about Bosnia College Essay Online College Essay Help

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Ethics & Information Technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Ethics & Information Technology - Essay Example The ethical dilemmas manifest the need to make ethical and legal decisions to guarantee the rights and satisfy the needs of all technology users and the public. This has led to establishment of information technology policies that guides the access, use, and transmission of information technology in the society. Any violation of the policies defines unethical behavior in information technology. However, the advancements in technology allow users to gather, store, manipulate, and communicate technological information, which defines a revolution in the use and dissemination of information that creates ethical dilemmas (Lynch 1). In addressing the ethical dilemmas, information ethics seeks to establish an ethical background that will enhance fair, equitable, and responsible practices with reference to access, privacy, security, and ownership. Nevertheless, it is difficult to develop a specific code of ethics in information technology due to its dynamic nature (Berzai 1). Maner notes, â€Å"That the involvement of computers in human conduct can create entirely new ethical issues, unique to computing, that do not surface in other areas† (4). The most dominant ethical problems in IT include ownership disputes, cybercrime, data theft, and hacking, viral infection, unauthorized access to data, hardware, and software, responsibility for computer failure, and inefficiency (Be rzai 1). Notably, computer ethics is significant and interesting since computers play special roles in modern society. James H. Moor defines computer ethics as â€Å"the analysis of the nature and social impact of computer technology and the corresponding formulation and justification of policies for the ethical use of such technology† (1). In absence of computer technology, we would not have computer ethics in the society. Indeed, computer ethics focuses on personal and societal

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Research Program Proposal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Research Program Proposal - Essay Example It is stated in there that " in 1998, for every 100,000 youth in the United States ages 10 through 17, there were 1,751 arrests of juveniles for property offenses". (Frontline: Juvenile Justice 2008) The problem rooted from some cited causal factors. One is the loose responsibility of the educators of the proper education designed for minors. Research shows that there are 70% of juvenile delinquent was caused by educational disabilities (Wright & Wright 2007). The ineffectiveness of the educational system in a certain community is comparable to non-educational system at all. The knowledge and awareness in society and morality that children should learned are not being effectively conveyed to them, thus the possibility to create socially-insensitive individual is in its highest possibility (Diekmann 2004). There are previous programs being implemented for the juvenile justice system to help resolve the social malady. In the United States, designed programs for juvenile justice system vary from states', and universities' concerns. The Juvenile Justice Role Model Program was a program established in 1995 that aims to discipline and emphasizes culture and academic diversity of the students.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

The Effect Of Corruption On Taxtation System Essay Example for Free

The Effect Of Corruption On Taxtation System Essay Introduction: The Federal government to collect taxes on income other than agriculture income, taxes on capital value, custom, excise duties and sale taxes. In the modern age, corruption is found in almost all the countries of the world. It has been found in all the ages, like an incurable diseases. It has a great crime against the member of the society. Corruption in the tax administration is a two way process. For each corrupt employee, there is a corrupt private sector person who is corrupt either willingly or under duress. Findings in 2001 suggest that a large majority of the private sector justifies non-payment of the taxes because of the simple non-performance of the government in its duties. Many respondents to the survey mentioned other countries where the state ensures provision of inadequate quality infrastructure as health, education, social security, roads and above all security of life and property. Corruption cannot be viewed in isolaton, as it is a part of the broader issue of governance and public management. The quality of a country s’ governance is a critical factor for its development process. It is thus surprising how very small attention is given to one of the most fundamental way that public revenue are raised. Developing countries are typically unable to generate sufficient amount of revenue from taxation because these countries face a number of institutional problems in the process of revenue generation. One of the main problems is corruption in tax administration and tax system reforms (Brondolo,et al.(2008). The quality of governance as a whole is also relevant in this context. It is agreed that the presence of tax system and corruption of public officials is a social phenomena that can significantly reduce tax revenue and seriously hurt economics growth and development. We feel that overlooking them will make any corruption reduction in the tax administration. Hence, even if we cannot change anything in this area, it is our duty to take the decision makers about the very important rule that the play in encouraging and sustaining corruption in the tax administration. Various studies try to investigate the determinants of tax revenue [e.g.,Teera(2003);weiss (1969);Tanzi and zee (2000) and imam and jacobs (2007) .Imam and Jacobs (2007) explain that real per capita income, share of agriculture in GDP, trade openness, inflation and corruption are the most important determinants of tax collection. Gupta (2007) finds that several structural factors like per capita GDP share of agriculture in GDP trade openness foreign aid, foreign debt and some new institutional variable like corruption and political stability are statistically and strong determinants of revenue performance. Pakistan’s Taxation System Federal taxes in Pakistan like most of the taxation systems in the world are classified into two broad categories, viz., direct and indirect taxes. A broad description regarding the nature of administration of these taxes is explained below: Direct Taxes Direct taxes primarily comprise income tax, along with supplementary role of wealth tax. For the purpose of the charge of tax and the total income, all income is classified under the following heads: †¢ Salaries †¢ Interest on securities; †¢ Income from property; †¢ Income from business or professions †¢ Capital gains; and income from other sources. Personal Tax All individuals, unregistered firms, associations of persons, etc., are liable to tax, at the rates rending from 10 to 35 per cent. Tax on Companies All public companies (other than banking companies) incorporated in Pakistan are assessed for tax at corporate rate of 39%. However, the effective rate is likely to differ on account of allowances and related to industry, location, exports, etc. Inter-Corporate Dividend Tax Tax on the dividends received by a public company from a Pakistan company is payable at the rate of 5% and at the rate of 15% in case dividends are received by a foreign company. Inter-corporate dividends declared or distributed by power generation companies is subject to reduced rate of tax i.e., 7.5%. Other companies are taxed at the rate of 20%. Dividends paid to all non-company shareholders by the companies are subject to with holding tax of 10% which is treated as a full and final discharge of tax liability in respect of this source of income. Treatment of Dividend Income: Dividend income received as below enjoys tax exemption, provided it does not exceed Rs. 10,000/-. Objective: The main objective of these is to increase the efficiency of tax administration, specifically by reducing corruption and taxation system. Literature review: Sandamo (2004) defines the concept of systemm in the following words.†Tax system is a violation of the law: when the taxpayer from reporting income from labour or capital which is in principal taxable, he engages in an illegal activity that makes him liable to administrative or legal action from the authorities.† Various studies explain that collection of tax revenue is one of the important areas where corruption is most likely to arise [Galtung (1995); Li (1997); Toye and Moore (1998); Tanzi (2000); and Tungodden (2003). Fjeldstad (2005) examines the experience of the Uganda Revenue authority (URA) in controlling fiscal corruption. The study concludes that several factors have contributed to the unsatisfactory results of the URA. The study also explains that pay level of employees in URA is one of the several factors affecting the behavior of tax officers. Fjeldstad and Bertil (2001) explain that this paradox does not justify policies to stimulate corruption. It analyses that in the short corruption may raise tax revenue but in the long run the opposite will be the case. with high Tanzi and Dvoodi (1997) have provided evidence that countries level of corruption tend to have lower collection of tax revenues in relation to GDP. The implication is that some of the taxes paid by taxpayers are diverted away from public accounts. Tanzi(1999) argues that a distinction needs to be made between taxes collected by the tax administrators and taxes received by the treasury. Sanyal, et al. (1998) investigates the relationship between corruption, tax system and laffer curve. The study explain that a corrupt tax administration leads to laffer curve behavior (a higher tax rate leads to a smaller net revenue). The study explain that â€Å"net revenue earned from a truth revealing audit probability always exceeds net revenue through audits, taxes, and penalties in the cheating region†. Hadi (2006) has taken an effort to see the relationship between corruption and tax evasion. This study analysis that how bribery affects tax evasion. It also explains how tax-payers would be tending to pay bribes to maximize their expected income. The study used three different groups of people, individual taxpayers, tax collectors, and inspectors. The results shows that size of bribe negatively affect the tax evasion. Chand and Karl (1999) examined the issue to control fiscal corruption by providing incentives to fiscal officers. A model is developed to expose the incentives effect. This study explains the importance of organizational setup and conditions of service of fiscal officers. The study concludes that corruption has to be done due to low wages and other social circumstances. Phillps and sandal (2008) explains the relationship between governance and tax reforms. The study explains that three key dynamics reflects the relationship between governance, taxation and investment climate. Firstly good tax system positively depends on good governance. Secondly a fair domestic taxation system promotes good governance because benefit tax system allows population to pay fairly. Aizenman and yothin (2005) explains that collection efficiency is determined by the penalty on underpaying and probability of audit. Their main purpose is to prove the dependence of VAT collections efficiency on some key structural and political economy factor, The study shows that collection efficiency of the value added is affected by economic structure that increase the cost of enforcement. The collection efficiency reduces with less urbanization, less trade openness and higher share of agriculture. Conclusions: *The study concludes that governance and corruption are two main determinant of tax revenue. *Corruption has adverse effect on tax collection, while good governance contributes to better performance in tax collection. * The study concludes that corruption has negative effect on tax revenues. * In developing countries tax revenue collection depends on efficiency of government. Thus the accountability , political stability , government effectiveness, regulatory quality , rule of law and control of corruption and are important factors in determining tax revenues in developing countries. * An improved tax to GDP ratio can be achieved by using a combination of good governance, improved tax administration, good macroeconomics policies and other discretionary tax measures. Policy implications: *As confidance building measure to address tax payers concern. Government must demonstrate genuine authority at the top level, arrange public of tax return of ruling elite, some percentage of taxes revenues for specific social sectors, and create a demonstrable linkage between revenue generation and development expenditure of an area. *Separate tax assessment and adjudication. *Maximum authority to tax administration. *Policy implications for governments internationally when consideration is given to the issue of effective administrations. Efforts need to be made by governments to make improvements to the governance ( voice and accountability, political stability , government effectiveness, regulatory quality , rule of law and control of corruption) as a starting point. *Fiscal corruption in the tax administration is reduced by required laws, which are enforced by independent and efficient judicial system. *Democratic political institutions are in place, taxpayers are allowed to freely express their opinion about the tax system, so tax administrations should become more transparent and publicaly accountable, hence fiscal corruption is more easily exposed. *Developing countries need actively to strive to reduce the opportunities of corruption in tax administration and change in incentive structure for tax officials. *International donors like IMF may benefit in achieving its objectives if its adopt eradication of corruption as the prime component of conditionalities’.which are almost always attatched to their programmes of soft loans. *Business process reengineering should minimum tax payers/tax collectors interaction , simplified system and rules , reduced discretionary power s, Strengthened monitoring ad accountability, and increase transparency. References: Acconcia, A.,M.D’Amato, and R.Martina (2003) Tax Evasion and Corruptionn in Tax Administration Journal of public Economics. Aizenman, J. and Y.Jinjarak (2005) The Collection Efficiency of the value Added Tax: Theory and international Evidence. Alm J.,R.W. Bahl and M.N. Murrey (1991) Tax Base Erosion in Developing Countries . Bird, Richard (2004) societal institiutions and Tax Effort in Developing Countries. Gupta, S.A (2007) Determinants of Tax Revenue Effort in Developing Countries . Phillips, M. and R.Sandall (2008) Linking Business Tax Reforms with Goverance. Tanzi, V. and H.Zee (2001) Tax policy for Developing Countries. Tanzi, Vito (2000) Taxtation in the last Decade.Centre for Research on Economics Development and Policy Reforms. Tanzi, V. And H.Zee (2000) Tax policy for Emerging Markets: Developing Countries. Washington , DC: International Monetatry Fund.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Amelia Earhart Essays -- essays research papers

Perhaps no name is as symbolic of aerospace achievement as the American aviator Amelia Earhart. She became the first woman to cross the Atlantic Ocean by air and the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean alone. She was also the first woman to receive the Distinguished Flying Cross. Her accomplishments as a pilot set standards for all fliers for years to come.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Amelia Mary Earhart was born in Atchison, Kansas, on July 24, 1897. She referred to herself as â€Å"AE†. She served during World War I as a military nurse in Canada, where she developed an interest in flying. She pursued her interest in flying in California, where she received her pilot’s license in 1922. After receiving her pilot’s license, Amelia spent several years as a teacher and social worker at Dennison House, in Boston. While she was doing this she continued her association with aviation by entering numerous flying meets.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Amelia became obsessed with flying. She spent a lot of solo flying time in The Canary. She set a women’s altitude record in October 1922 by flying The Canary to 14,000 feet. Ruth Nichols broke the record a few weeks later, but the effort is what started Earhart’s fame.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In 1928, Earhart was asked to join Wilmer Stultz, a pilot, and Lou Gordon, a flight mechanic, as a passenger on a trans-Atlantic flight, called The Friendship. The flight went from Trepassy Bay, Newfoundland, to Burry Port, Wales a distan...

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

How Consumer Insight Are Shaping Companies in India Essay

Customer is King is an adage that most companies across the globe have embraced. The need to concentrate on customers and be responsive to their demands has long been acknowledged by organizations. However, with globalisation and technological revolution the dynamics of business, the meaning of customer and market knowledge have all undergone a transformation. Today, the customer is the controlling factor in business and to be market-driven, an organisation has to evolve a culture that constantly listens to the customer, analyses competition and has strategies that meet existing, anticipated and even unanticipated needs of the customer. Going one step further, organizations must focus on customer relationship management which has given way to customer knowledge management. Given the international environment and knowledge economy, market and customer intelligence serves as a core competency and a principal source of competitive advantage. Leading by listening Practically every success story in today’s corporate realm reflects how awareness of customer needs shapes competitive business strategy. Let’s look at some examples. Procter & Gamble When P&G, the largest consumer goods company in the world, chose to offer its products to the lower income customer in developing countries, it had research teams associating with the poorest of homes for weeks. This gave the company valuable insights, which aided the company in creating a range of products that suited the pockets of this segment, enabling it to gain substantial market share., the first e-retailer of books in the world, attained competitive advantage by emerging as book lovers’ forum where they could also share knowledge. It maintains customer knowledge through services such as book reviews, access to order histories and product recommendations based on preceding orders. Consequently, Amazon has recorded more than 70% repeat orders from its customers. Mahindra & Mahindra Mahindra & Mahindra’s SUV, Scorpio, has experienced enormous success in domestic and international markets. The positioning of Scorpio as an economy SUV was centered on the findings of extensive market visits and exploration of customer needs. The customer needs and wants ascertained were transformed into product specifications for Scorpio. Customer groups were consulted at every stage of design and product development. Scorpio was designated as the â€Å"Car of the Year† by ‘BBC on Wheels’ shortly after its launch. Indian Railways The amazing transformation of Indian Railways from what was termed as a white elephant to a profit making entity in less than two years has caught the attention of Indian and foreign academic and corporate establishments. This turnaround was not owing to any high-end technology but to a modest information means — the passenger feedback form. Data attained from these forms was analysed to identify customer expectations from the Railways. This was supported by a study of the best railways worldwide, and benchmarking with other transportations such as roadways and airlines. The outcome was a complete renovation of trains, stations and railway services to render them passenger-friendly. Needless to say, customers welcomed this change. The above examples highlight that it is vital to listen to customers for a success marketer-customer relationship, where the customer is not just a beneficiary, but a partner. Effective listening, together with strategic initiatives, can bring about a happily-ever-after end to this association.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Occupation decision Essay

My decision to enter medical school started after my grandfather suffered a heart attack at the age of 20. Although this incident hurt me very much because of the medical staff inability to save his life disappointed me. After the grieving process was complete I began to consider a career in the healthcare industry. My initial step toward entering a career in the healthcare industry was to shadow a cardiologist which I believed would provide me an opportunity for me to learn what a life as a healthcare provider would be like. Once I decided that I would like to pursue a career in medicine I enrolled in college and currently completing a bachelors of science in Biology. I found the healthcare profession to be exciting and realized that it afforded me the opportunity to help the sick and injured which I believe I will enjoy and have a talent for. My experience working for the cardiologist affords me the opportunity to learn basic healthcare skills such as obtaining vital signs. Record keeping is an important part of managing a practice and my experience of tracking records has afforded me the opportunity to demonstrate this important skill. My ultimate goal is to complete medical school, a residency and then pursue a fellowship in either cardiology or neurology. One of the goals I have is to help prevent people form suffering an untimely death such as my grandfather by seeking to provide optimal care to prevent the consequences of poor health. I believe that the desire to help people created by my grandfather’s untimely death will help me provide competent and compassionate care. These traits will be advantageous to MUA because of the positive public image perception it will create. My undergraduate instructors and the cardiologist that I have followed I hope to someday model that inspirational behavior. Although I do not have many academic credentials currently but my desire to help people who are sick and injured. I am finishing my last semester with a bachelor of science in biology. This background in biology has provided me with the basic scientific knowledge which has developed a strong foundation for me to build upon with the courses to follow. I am of reputable character which is an important character trait because of the high level of trust needed between a physician and provider. The office work and shadowing I completed prior to my enrollment in college has provided me a unfettered glimpse of the struggles and benefits of pursing a career in healthcare. I believe that because of the reasons I listed I would be an excellent candidate for admission to your program. .

Friday, November 8, 2019

AIDS Treament essays

HIV/AIDS Treament essays When someone gets diagnosed with HIV/AIDS, most people think its the end of the world for them. Well that isnt necessarily so. Even though scientists have not been able to find a vaccine for the virus, there are several ways to treat HIV/AIDS that prolong ones life to even that of a normal life span. But until a vaccine is found, the unfortunate thing is that all people diagnosed with HIV/AIDS will eventually die by complications from HIV/AIDS. To understand to treat HIV/AIDS you have to know the life cycle of an HIV virus. All an HIV virus has in its borders or membrane is it DNA. The HIV viruss membrane is attracted to a certain protein that certain cells in your body has. This protein is called CD4 receptors. The main type of cell the HIV virus wants is the T4 cell or the T-helper cell. This cell is responsible for warning the immune system of invaders in the body. The HIV virus binds to the T-helper cell when the HIV virus finds it because its highly attracted to its CD4 receptors. After it binds to the cell the virus sends its DNA into the cell. The virus then copies it DNA into the cells DNA. So as the cell multiplies, the HIV virus multiplies as well. It has made the cell in an HIV virus factory. Then the virus kills the starting host cell since its not needed anymore. There are several ways to slow this process of infection down. There are also several groups of medications that slow this process down. Entry Inhibitors, Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) Non-Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNTRIs), and Protease Inhibitors (PIs) are just some of the groups of medications that treat HIV/AIDS. Entry Inhibitors do just what they say they prevent entry of the virus. The way they do this is the target the proteins the virus need to bind with the cell and block or cover up those proteins. If that proces ...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

How To Write More When You Dont Have Time

How To Write More When You Dont Have Time In our Better Blogger Survey, we found out two things about (most) of you: 86% of you plan to publish more content than you have been. 75% of you are on  a team of only two people or are blogging solo. Nathan suggested that I talk a bit more about this topic, partially because of the fact that I work as a solo blogger and write about 6,000 to 10,000 words each week, and also because you and I have similar goals (yep, I took that same survey and can vouch for these two concern points). Usually, I’ll push the idea that if you can’t handle more, you can’t do more. But for the go-getters out there who are insisting that you are going to write more  no matter what, here’s the ugly truth: Self-discipline and work lie ahead, not gimmicks or hacks. How To #Write More With Your Small Team via @JulieNeidlinger And, to get things off to a great start, let’s talk about distractions. Control The Distractions To Write More I’ve talked about distraction-free writing  in terms of the writing space itself, and how the visual distractions of the app you write in might hamper your writing efforts. Nothing derails my ability to write more, though, than the fact that I can check Facebook, my phone, Twitter, and every other non-work â€Å"information† source under the sun to avoid the work of writing. I blame my browser’s URL recognition and the fact that I can start typing â€Å"facebook† with just my left hand for sending me over there so much. It’s as if my hand starts typing â€Å"face† on its own at this point. Recommended Reading:  How To Improve Your Personal Productivity As You Blog These technology and computer-based distractions are a struggle to deal with, but there are some technological based solutions you  can use (e.g. Chrome plugins that limit time on social media, or a browser that locks you out of websites you’ve deemed distracting during work hours). But there are other distractions that have nothing to do with technology. I write at home, and since we’ve been having wonderful warm fall weather lately, I like to open up the windows for fresh air. The distraction? A neighbor who leaves the dog out all day while he is at work, leaving the neighborhood with incessant barking and howling the entire day. If you’re like me, once you hear a noise and really notice it, it’s all you hear. That white noise machine works great for putting you to sleep at night, for example, until one night you hear the loop and from that point on, all you can hear is the loop. So with Mr. McBarky in the neighborhood, I find I have to write elsewhere (basement, coffee shops, library) or keep the windows closed. If not, I inevitably end up enraged on a ridiculous level, calling animal control to report the dog. Control your #distractions to #write more content, grow your blog, and increase your impact.So what to do about the distractions that keep you from writing  more content and hitting your blog schedule goals? 1. Identify your distractions. Distractions can be digital, they can be audible, they can be hunger, they can be coworkers, they can be disinterest, they can be emotional- anything that sends your thought off track. Before you can defeat them, you have to be able to identify them. What am I doing when I realize I’m not writing? If you sat down to write and suddenly realize you aren’t, diagnose what happened. Write down what distracted you, and where you ended up. Write down what time of day it was, and the setting (where you were) when it took place. Note why you think you were distracted. 2. Find the distraction pattern. Distraction patterns often follow typical paths. We can focus better in the morning  (especially as you get older), while we almost look for distraction later in the afternoon. We can focus better if we haven’t been sitting still in the same place too long. We get sleepy after a big meal. Look at those moments of distraction that keep popping up. Can you see a pattern? Was it because you were bored, tired, or had just eaten lunch? Try to figure out when and why you are the most distracted, and see if you can plan your writing  to happen when you are least distracted. This is tricky in a team; the plans and meetings of others are inevitably going to force you into distraction zones. This is a valid topic of discussion with your team regarding the scheduling of meetings and other distractions versus the goal of writing  more content. Find your distraction paths to change your perspective productively. #writingYou may find one key reason for â€Å"distraction† is procrastination. Procrastination is its own beast, that horrible trap when you put off doing something you don’t want to do as long as you can. It’s certainly not a part of writing more content, though I could very well be a card-carrying member of Procrastinator’s Anonymous. I’ve mentioned before how you can work with your procrastinating tendencies and still produce, and I stand by the idea that you can work with it as well as overcome it to some extent. Procrastination is often at the heart of most distractions; we go looking for something else to do. We actively want  to be distracted. It’s the toughest one to deal with, and takes the most willpower. 3. Build on useful distractions. When I am trying to read something difficult that I know is good for me, I find my mind wandering. I will miraculously remember a million valid things I need to remember doing, things I don’t seem to recall unless I’m otherwise trying to harness my attention to something difficult. Keep a piece of paper handy and write down those to-dos, those â€Å"oh yeah† moments so that you can get it out of your mind and can get on with the main thing at hand. Otherwise, they just sit there and fester and make it impossible for you to get your writing done. How To Turn Negative Distractions Into Something Useful #bloggingAnd heck, you’ll probably end up with a fine task list when you’re done. Might as well capitalize on the inevitable distraction and turn them from something negative into something useful. 4. Kill useless distractions. Here’s where the meat of the whole â€Å"control your distractions† approach takes effect, and it won’t be fun or pretty. It’s going to hurt. I mean, if we are people who are checking our  mobile phones nearly once every six waking minutes of the day, we are clearly addicted to distractions. We give lip service to our disgust with experiencing distractions while we secretly crave any chance to be interrupted from work. So... Mobile phone.  Turn off your phone completely so there are no dings and vibrations. Or, turn off all app notifications. Or go into a room away from your mobile phone. Offline. Write with pen and paper, or even a typewriter (for reals, not ironically), so that you aren’t tempted to venture down any Internet rabbit hole. If you need the Internet to do research, write the outline  and basic post structure offline first. You can write in Google Docs offline, so turn off your Internet connection and use that feature. Get a door.  Find a quiet place that has a door and let your team members know (or your family, or your kids) that you cannot be interrupted until a set time. Get a clock placard and hang on the door with a note about interruptions if you have to. Limit messages. Forbid yourself from checking email more than three times a day. Two is even better. The same for social media that you use for messaging. Unless you are the social media manager or it's part of your planned  social media engagement program, get off of it. This is why planning is important for all content creation, including social media. Without planning, you sort of find yourself on Twitter, all the time. Whoops. Dominate your stomach. Have water nearby, before you write, unless you plan to break at regular intervals to walk and get water. But don’t eat too much before you prepare to do your most arduous content creation. Eating makes you sleepy. A little hunger pang during your writing isn’t going to kill you; it might sharpen your senses a bit. While fatigue can improve some aspects of creativity (because it wears down barriers you erect in your mind), writing a coherent blog post while drowsy doesn’t work. If you get great ideas while you’re sleepy, fine. Do the writing of those ideas while you’re sharp and awake. Rethink your hunger. No more â€Å"I think I need a snack† excuses. Most of the coffee consumed in offices is likely out of boredom. You just want to get up and away from your desk. Set a timer. Sometimes, I find it really helpful to inject a level of fake â€Å"stress† by setting a timer and saying, for example, that I have 1 hour to get a post written. Granted, I’ll have to clean it up and such, but it really turns the focus on when you’re racing against the clock. You produce. You can clean it up later. Move around.  Get up and away from your desk. Go for a walk before you sit down to do any major writing. If you’re one of the frozen chosen like we are up here in North Dakota and it’s too cold out, find a stairwell and go up and down a few flights to get the blood pumping. Procrastination problems. Admit you’re a procrastinator, and start working on the self-discipline to do the hard stuff first. That alone will decrease your distractions because you’ve removed the biggest contributor to the category of Distractions You Can Control. Tidy up.  Get junk and clutter off of your desk and workspace. No noises. No, you cannot do a good job writing with the TV going or music blaring. I know some people swear that they can’t write without music blaring through their earbuds, but I really doubt it. Perhaps there are some scenarios or rare situations, but generally, having the words of others wafting through the brain isn’t going to help you write a blog post. And sitting down in front of the TV in the evening with your laptop with the idea that you’ll write and watch Netflix at the same time? Liar. It will only take longer than if you did it without the background noise. If your team is serious about writing more content  and also realizes that distractions are a serious issue, you will need to essentially create a â€Å"clean room†, a place where distractions cannot be found. No phones, no noises, a door- whatever you’ve determined is derailing your writing  efforts. Stop Being An Island John Donne  said that no man was an island, and the same can be said for your team. There are other people out there who can help you write  more content through things like guest posts and interviews. It’s just a guess, but when most content marketers (particularly solo marketers) start thinking about the overwhelming state of writing more content, they are thinking as islanders. They are thinking it’s all on them. They are thinking that each piece of content is brand new, from scratch, all on their lonesome. A couple of truths about writing  content that can help get you off the island: There are great guest writers  out there. Find them on the blogs you already enjoy reading. Find them in the comments section. Ask them if they’d like to write for you. Please remember to reuse your content. Content curation  is a valid part of â€Å"your† content plan. Most ideas are derivative. You don’t always have to come up with new ideas every day. You can expound or rework your own, or other’s, ideas. In other words, you can include other people's content in your efforts to â€Å"write† more content, even if you didn’t exactly create the content. The big trap for you comes when you view writing  as starting fresh and new each day. You think you’re running a race on your own when you’re actually running a relay and passing off the baton. Writing is like running a relay and passing the baton. You're not alone. #bloggingThe overlap between growth and quantity. It’s not that you don’t already know those things in that list; we’ve talked about them a lot here on this blog. But I think it’s easy to think of them in terms of â€Å"these are growth hacks† and forget that they are also a part the  Ã¢â‚¬Å"writing more content† set. More content often leads to more growth, but if you step back and see it not just as part of your plan to grow but also part of how you’ll simply go about increasing your content output, it might help you approach these ideas better. Growth tends to be numbers we measure after something has occurred. Writing  a larger quantity of content is something that has to simply happen right now. So, if you have a list of things to do to grow your brand, and you have a different list of things to do to write  more content, and those lists don’t have these similarities, you need to rethink your approach. A Lack Of Resources Perhaps the stumbling block for writing more content  is that you lack resources. These might include: Time Ability Knowledge Money Well, that’s really all of it, isn’t it? Any kind of blogging resource falls into one of those biggies. I can’t conjure up more time for you, though I can talk to you about using it more wisely and defeating procrastination. I can also suggest a couple of things that might be consuming the limited amount of time and resources that you have. If you don’t have time to write long, long blog posts, don’t write them. Ideal blog post length  is really quite arguable. Different bloggers swear by different post lengths. Fresh and frequent content happens easier with shorter posts if you are short on time and blogging solo. You may love Blog X’s layout and gadgetry, and the success they’ve touted from using them, but if you don’t know how to create and/or maintain such things, why are you wasting so much time chasing it down for your own site? Just create good content and forget the bells and whistles for now. You may not know as much as the rest in your niche. So capitalize on that from two directions: Learn by reading the experts, and create content for your own audience based around what you found and learned from the experts. Eventually, you’ll gain the knowledge yourself. In the meantime, you write  more content and you bring your audience along for the education ride. You may wish to be the Oracle Of Your Niche, but it’s probably not going to happen. If you don’t have the time to search down 10 white papers for research for one post, find one really good piece of information and set your plan to create three pieces of content from the one. When tallying up what resources you think you need as you create your content marketing plan, list resources you actually have instead of resources others have that you want. You can still make great stuff with fewer resources. Remember, necessity is the mother of invention. The key to writing more content  from a small amount of input is to be creative with what you have, not what you think you should have.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Portfolio management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Portfolio management - Essay Example The most vital decision regarding investing that an investor can make involves the amount of risk he or she is willing to bear. Most investors will want to obtain the highest return for the lowest amount of possible risk. However, there tends to be a trade-off between risk and return, whereby larger returns are generally associated with larger risk. Portfolio management helps to bring together various securities and other assets into portfolios that address investor needs, and then to manage those portfolios in order to achieve investment objectives. Effective asset management revolves around a portfolio manager's ability to assess and effectively manage risk. With the explosion of technology, access to information has increased dramatically at all levels of the investment cycle. It is the job of the portfolio manager to manage the vast array of available information and to transform it into successful investments for the portfolio for which he/she has the remit to manage. Portfolio management has faced lots of ups and downs due to the market turbulences caused by the global market credit crunch. In this following section, the functions and roles played by the portfolio managers are discussed upon.Portfolio management is principally about risk and return strategies. It is concerned with the construction and management of investment assets. There are two fundamental ways that a portfolio manager can add value which are follows ( Lumby, 1994): Strategic diversification- The portfolio manager generates value by effectively exploiting diversification opportunities between the assets in the portfolio. For instance, two stocks that are not well correlated can be combined so as to get more return relative to risk. Alpha return- The second way that fund managers add value is by generating returns that are in excess of what could be obtained by a reasonable combination of the asset classes in the fund. Alpha generation may be due to the relative weight given to each of a series of asset classes at any given time or it may be due to the specific stocks selected within an asset class-finding the best stocks in a sector. Passive portfolios have predictable styles. A passive investor knows exactly what types of securities he or she is invested in. Active managers, on the other hand, can vary the composition of their portfolios significantly over time - a problem known as "style drift". The styles of portfolio management are discussed in the following section. Active portfolio manager An active portfolio manager is one who constantly makes decisions and appraises the value of investments within the portfolio by collecting information, using forecasting techniques, and predicting the future performance of the various asset classes, market sectors, individual equities or assets. His goal is to obtain better performance for the portfolio. He uses personal ability and judgment to select undervalued assets to attempt to outperform the market. The active managers adopt strategies, all involving detailed analysis, as given below (Brentani, C. 2004, p.93): i. Top-down approach- This approach involves assessing the prospects for particular market sectors or countries (depending on the index), following a detailed review of general economic, financial and political factors. Sector weightings may be changed by fund managers depending on their view of the prevailing economic cycle (known as sector rotation). If a recession is likely, shares in consumer sectors such as retailing, homebuilders and motor distributors will be sold and the proceeds reinvested in, say, the food manufacturing sector. A portfolio is then selected of individual shares in the favored

Friday, November 1, 2019

Child Verbal Abuse Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Child Verbal Abuse - Research Paper Example When a child is verbally abused, several negative emotional and psychological problems arise, especially at the most critical stages of his development. One of the outcomes is that he is likely to develop interpersonal difficulty which defines a personality disorder characterized with the sense and emotions of doubt, guilt, mistrust and inferiority (Johnson et al. 16). It also entails a distorted way of thinking as well as behaving. For people who were verbally abused as children, they usually suffer from personality disorders as adults. This negative emotional effect caused by verbal abuse can be linked with increased risk of fanatical and irrational behavior from childhood even to his adulthood. Alloy defines negative cognitive style as a characteristic way of attributing the causes of negative life events to stable, internal, and global factors (e.g. I did not pass my exam because I am stupid), inferring negative consequence (e.g. I will never make it in life) and making self-critical judgments of ones character (e.g., I am not worthy), with Beck adding that it also involves having dysfunctional attitudes and maladaptive self-schemas (qtd. in Sachss-Ericsson et al. 72). The child suffers low self-esteem and belittles himself to the point where he does not see his sense of worth. This cognitive style may result to the child getting into depression as he advances into maturity. Besides parents, the teacher is one of the people a child spends most of his time with. As a result of this, there develops a teacher-child relationship which largely influences the child’s social skills, behavior with other children, his academic performance, as well as the emotional aspect. Brendgen et al. say that a child, who has a negative relationship with the teacher instigated by verbal abuse will adversely be affected, with the likelihood of missing out on learning opportunities as well as suffering behavioral

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

A Stakeholder Perspective Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

A Stakeholder Perspective - Essay Example Since the technology was invented it has been faced with numerous debates some challenging its legitimacy while other proposing for its implementation due to the benefits that come along it (Young). Statistics from WTP indicate t there are close to one hundred strains of genetically modified organism that have be developed so far with approximately forty of them being implemented in the farms for large scale production purposes (Weirich). Despite the strong opposition that have marred the implementation of genetically modified organisms in a number of countries across the world these organisms have numerous of advantages to various stakeholders in the agricultural sector (Koch and Bjarte). For instance, the strains that are genetically modified are often resistant to pests and diseases; they depict tolerance to drought and herbicides at the same time they have enhanced nutritional enrichment as compared to the traditional crops. Despite this advantages a number of arguments have been advanced regarding genetically modified organisms ranging from their safety to if elaborate legislation measures have been put in place to regulate their use and distribution (Consumers Food Safety and Environment) This paper will be arguing on the genetically modified organism debate from a farmer’s perspective based in Ghana. Ghana is a third world country based in Africa and thus it is classified among the group of developing countries that face economic and food security problems over time. Farming in third world countries like Ghana is not sophisticated in terms of farm machinery and thus most of the farming is done for substance purposes (Koch and Bjarte). Commercial farming is done on a small scale by organizations which can afford to implement mechanization in the firms in terms of buying the expensive machines that are required to implement large-scale production of crops as well as the farm inputs that are required

Monday, October 28, 2019

Organizations Environmental Impacts Of Change Management Essay

Organizations Environmental Impacts Of Change Management Essay An organization can be defined as the social entity that has purpose. It has a boundary where participants are considered as insiders and while are called outsiders, all the participants are in to a define structure. A group people brought together for the purpose of achieving of certain objectives. As the basic unit of organization is the rather than the role of a person in it organization is maintained an existence, sometimes over a long period of time, despite many changes of members.(Statt, 1991).Human resource is a part of a company and its strategic plan. A strategic leadership necessitate when change is required in ABF limited. Strategic leader should be a proactive in an organization. Change is about survival of an organization. Organizations environmental impacts of change The organization change, by the emissive pressure of competition, by the sharp economics changes, globalization, changes in the technologies. By this organizations are continually reshaping worldwide. Due to the continuous changes in the software developments increased the demand of information and communication playing major challenge of building a consistency worldwide. Organization environment influenced by the political environment, technological environment, and social environment. All factors, including institutions, groups, individuals, events and so on, that are outside the organization being analyzed ,but have a potential impact on that organization.(Tush man ,1988).these factors are influencing the organization to draw attention towards a change in one or more elements. It leads to the consequent changes in a organization. By vast changes in the technology, the organization are triggered to change in there structure. Globalization is one of the factors. By introducing new technologies in an organization there will be scope of introduce a new production process. These lead to the computerization process. All these factors lead to a change in an organization the political environment plays an enormous influence to change an organization, the rapid change in government polices, public sectors and the attitudes, behaviour of people with in are t he factors triggering for a change. Demographic changes, Social expectations for increase in the standard of living influencing for a change. Organization operates in three types of environment namely temporal environment, external environment and internal environment. Temporal environment influences the organization in two ways. The first one is task oriented such as task oriented time, product design time, system process and value oriented. The second one is a specific way. It goes though the life cycle of an organization. Political, economic, technological and social cultural environment all these factors are the physical one. These come under external environment. Inner environment is first line responses that occurred in the temporal and external environment. It operates in multidimensional environments. Due to this human resource is under pressure. A perfect strategic leader can bring a change in the ABF limited. A clear sense and mission is essential in the ABF LTD. A flat organization structure has to follow. Human resources should play more that a one role in ABF LTD. It should analyze the current situation. Mainly it should look into leadership styles, intra and inter groups relationship motivation and commitment of the employees of the ABF LTD SOFT HRM PRACTICES: To resolve a problem is to select a course of action that yields an outcome that is good enough, that satisfies (Ackoffz). Soft HRM characterised by indirect control of employees. It gives prominence to strategies and plans for gaining the employee commitment towards the company mission, plans, and trading conditions. In these employee increasingly involves in how the work carried out. In includes the creating and shaping of culture of the organization. It will create a clear integration between the employee values and organization goals. HR specialties involves in this process. It focuses on the social and human side of an organisation and total system change .it relies on action research model. Top level management involves and participate actively. It relays on a standard blue print that how to change can be done. It seeks to the betterment of individual and organization. For accomplish the task in a organization it considers all kinds of teams .Its a planned changed process. Its a long term process and change is needs to sustain over for a long time period. (Barbara et al, ) Change in culture Organizational culture refers to the personality of a firm, i.e., what makes the organization unique in the eyes of insiders and outsiders. While there are many definitions of culture, the common theme is the presence of shared values, beliefs, assumptions, and patterns of behaviour (c.f., Schein 1992).Firms culture and human resources management exits a relationship between them. They affect one other. Compensation, staffing, training and evaluation are the four polices of the human resources effect the organization culture. In ABF Ltd there is no significant organization culture. There is a need to change in the culture. There is a need of realign of culture in ABF LTD. SHRM first need to establish a basic underlying assumptions and a shift in values or this strategies can be change, if there is possibility in another way. Human resources should able to produce an adequate resources to change a culture in organization. SHRM should pay more attentions in culture change programmes in organizations trade unions and employee associations. SHRM must take account in the existing practices such as an approach towards to the training, performance and to the recruitment process. A bottom approach of change in culture in ABF LTD. It creates a trust and understanding between the employees. It involves in implications and proposals. Its and high in long run. It focuses more on the problems. Scope of high transformation change in employee in an organization.(Barbira) Change in communications: Communication involves in both giving out of message from person and it receives message to the other person .Communications play an important role in an organisation. Communication can be a verbal, oral, it can be a context, it can be a means of an electrical (email or text boards). Generally communication may be an opinion, feedback, information or an emotional text. In ABF ltd there is a communication gap between the employers and the managers. The purpose to introduce communication in ABF is to It can provide the solutions for the problems raised. Manager can understand the employees It helps in the motivation, contribution and participation of an employee Good communication can improve the organisation performance, improve management and decision making, it improve employees performance and commitment, helps greater trust and increase job satisfaction ACAS (2000) In ABF ltd, its lacking the upward and downward communications. The upward and downward strategy can help in improve communications in the ABF ltd. This will make to understand each other rand they can communicate easily. This makes to understand the polices of an organisation. In drastic change in technology an web page should be introduced in the ABF ltd. Employees can be communicate easily electrically ( emails) It will bring an drastic change in communication in ABF LTD. By electrically based communication employee can receive the data and can communicate it in any part of the world. By these it can give the reviews of the programs, managers problem on the contonpary problems and it can give the outline proposals for the future activities (Torrington, 2002). Leadership Manger deals with their employees in different ways. An organisation can work rightly when there is good leader. There are three categories in leadership styles. Autocratic managers do not trust the employs. They pass the orders to low level management, there will be one way communication, and important decisions will be made by the manager. There are many limitations in autocratic managers. Second one is Paternalistic managers. Give more attention towards to the employee, social views and they get the feedback from the employs. Final decision will be taken by the manager. Third one is Democratic managers. Encourages in making the decisions by the employee and also leaders in the sub ordinates, there will be two way communications. Managers trust the employee. In the ABF limited a democratic leader should be introduced. It will lay a mutual communication between the top level and low level management. By this kind of leadership employee can make their own decisions. Employee can get motivated by this and increase in the performance of an employee. Appraisal System: Assessment is the process by which data are collected and reviewed about an individual employees past and current work behaviour and performance.(John,1994). Appraisal of an employee can be given by assessing him. Appraisal decision in an organization can be taken, by taking the feedback from the employees, performance and outputs of an individual employee; its an information system process. By implementing the V rooms theory for appraisal system in to the ABF LTD. There should be an value of reward, it depends upon the people strength and outcomes, the rewards given by the organization should be dependent upon on the value of the individual outcomes, at the lower levels roles and responsibilities should be give to the right person , it should not influence by the effort, look into the effective performance. Rewards system produces the job satisfaction and improves the job performance, these rewards can get employee job satisfaction.(John , 2002) Motivation Motivation plays an important role in an organization. Motivation of the work depends on working conditions, salary, company policy, interpersonal working relationships. to motivate the employees there is an need of good leader to motivate the employees By reviewing the Herzberg two factor theory, motivation can bring into the ABF Ltd, Considering the factors de motivating them, factors motivating the employees such as job security , polices of an organization, working conditions. By motivating the employee he/her feels responsibility towards the job, increase in job prospects and performance( Bratton et al ,1994) Training Programmes: Shortages of skills of employees, vast increase in the technology, product quality and adaptability are the some of reasons that lead to training programmes. No training programmes running under ABF LTD. Employee development as a part of the organisation s over all human resources strategy means the skilful provision and organization of learning experiences in the work place in order that performance can be improved, that work goals can be achieved and that through enhancing the skills knowledge, learning ability and enthusiasm of people at every level, there can be continues individual growth. Employee development must, there fore, be [art of a wider strategy for the business, aligned with the organisations corporate mission and goals. [Rosemary Harrison, 1993].in an organisation level its important that employee must work to optimum level of performance. SHRM have to under take the training programs in an organisation. If the employee is unable to perform to his optimum level the b est remedy is training programs. A different variety of methods can be implemented of job analysis that is suitable to implement training programs. By the training employee can reach his performance level. For the training programs, job analysis have to used for an employee feels performance is adequate. Where there are facing the problems and any difficulties in the knowledge and skills. Such type of approaches can be feasible to understand the employee. These training programs can feel more committed towards to the learning experience that can be recertifying the difficulties .Training programs can play a dual role in an organization. It will motivate and improve the performance of the employee. It will give in change in environment. If ABF LTD introduce the training programmes there will b improve in the increase in quality, employee can more motivated towards work, less scrap and it will create more productivity. Change in Technology and it impacts Due to the increase in the technology, IT services have become part of the Human resources. It influenced the human resources in every aspect of work in day to day life. With increase in technology in human resources there is a decline in costs in many aspects like employee can accesses to the information regarding the job, pay roll s; it creates more efficiency for the human resources department. It allows a form of one to one relationship between the organization and the employees. When Technology is being implemented in an organization, it does not limit to a certain limit and it can improve the performance of an employee. The layer of technology can connect the different types of application. It will create a work flow. Technology can be a tool to facilitate to generate the performance of an employee. It can be a valuable tool for training and development. Payroll, time and labour management and employee benefits can be operated smoothly by introducing human resources information system into an organization. This will permit a squeal history of an employee, his/ her performance, personal details and payroll details. It gathers the information such as attendance; pay check holdings, various deductions. Employees information available 24 x 7. It analyzes the performance of an employee. It maintains up to date information of an employee. Its been part of a human resource management. Employee benefits are very important to an organization. It can able to track weather employee are benefiting provided. This system benefits from paper work. Now a days technology has been a major impact on the employee growth. In the areas like computer based testing and work place collaboration. Technology is been used for the employee training and the for the product development. By the technology we can retrieve the employee previous work history and his performance. Technology enhances the capability of the human resources. By the technology the employees information can keep in secured. Total Quality Management: Total quality management play an important role in on organization. Due to the globalization companies are driving towards to the quality of the product and customer satisfaction. HRM should perform a crucial change in the terms of total quality management in ABF ltd. Human resources should attract the senior management for long time training progress to attain the good quality of product. Hr should provide training to improve the quality. The functional strategy of TQM should focus on the every employee of an organization. Improving the Quality of a product is a continues process. HRM plays an important role in maintains a quality of product. HRM should emphasis on the other departments who are making a continuing improvement in service. To maintain the total quality HRM should include the customer suggestions.HRM should conduct the periodic surveys to attain the TQM. The hr should concern about the every department and undertake continually to improve the performance. HR has to mon itor by inspecting the small samples of the product. To motivate the employees HRM has to design appraisal and reward system based on the performance. The consultants were looking at following five areas planned maintenance policies, quality assurance, utilization of machine setters and technicians, information and control systems, Manufacturing organization. Firstly an organization has look into the communications, communications plays an important role. By implementing Soft HRM practices ABF ltd for long run sustainability and for future aspects. Without communications the low level management cannot communicate with the high level management and vice versa. This will lead to de motivation of employees. There should be change in culture it create a trust between the employees. By introducing democratic managerial style there will be improvement in performance of employees. By introducing the training programs and technology will bring drastic changes in employees like increase in performance, individual skill and employee get there job satisfaction. By introducing the total quality management in an organization there will be full control in the quality, so that customers can satisfy with products these will enhance in growth in business. By applying these changes there will growth in the business and change is for survival. Conclusion: In conclusion, according to the case study ABF Ltd is bad situation because of its lacking in communications, co-ordination between the top level management, lacking of technology. So its important to HR director to implement new strategies. It should to implement in a correct time. HR direct need of taking the proactive steps and reactive approach. In business planning its requires a proper planning and action rather than the reacting to the present condition in an organization. A change has to initiate as a SHRM of the organization. The human resources should assist the ABF LTD to change. Weather changes can come unexpectedly; it may come from the external environment or internal environment. It can be in any form, employee must adapt and so too human resources. Human resources should update the technology and able to adopt in the organization. The critical issue HR should gain strategic approach. The Human resource professional should be strategic partner , proactive when forecast ing ,managing and adapting to change Word Count :2786

Friday, October 25, 2019

A Deep Look At Elisa Allen in Steinbecks The Chrysanthemums Essay

The Chrysanthemums by John Steinbeck is not just a simple short story. Yes it is a short story about a country housewife that lives a boring life and grows beautiful flowers. She is then mislead to believe that a perfect stranger has interest in her flowers and is moved to reveal to him her secrets in growing them and even give him not only some of her prized shoots from the flowers but also some work so that he is given what he originally wanted. She then finds her shoots thrown haphazardly on the side of the road. She begins to ask for wine and becomes very saddened and begins to weep. On the surface it seems like a very superficial story about how a woman could be deceived by a man into believing that he has interest in what she can accomplish. However when one reads the story from a higher critical perspective, especially the last line one realizes how deeply profound the story really is. The last line of the story where the main character Elisa Allen declares that a little wine will be enough and she begins to cry like an old woman reveals that she has grudgingly accepted her lot in life and accepts that she can only experience so much fulfillment due to her position in society and the fact that it has stolen her youth and left her a bitter old woman. Elisa Allen is a strong hardworking woman that is very skilled at growing Chrysanthemums. Her husband recognizes her skill however he does not truly appreciate what is behind it. He instead attempts to encourage her to use her skills for a more practical and therefore supposedly more meaningful endeavor such as growing apple trees. â€Å"Her husband, Henry Allen does not understand her mind; his interest is focused not on the point that she likes to grow it but on the possibility o... ...en, as even her husband had made a joke about taking her there. However she desires to go and although envisioning such bloodshed repulses her it is also alluring. â€Å"In other words, the imbalance between the relatively restricted setting and Elisa's vaulting desire to wander into the unknown territory is chiefly designed to strengthen the overall imagery of Elisa, whose drive to experience the violent outer world.† (Compare Contrast Essay) So she decides to ask if she can have some wine instead and hopes for the excitement it might be able to bring although she knows that whatever momentary excitement it might bring it is not lasting. The next day she will continue to be a bored house wife, with a husband that largely ignores her and is boring and content. Even what she has to work on, the source of pride in her life the Chrysanthemums are meaningless. So she weeps. A Deep Look At Elisa Allen in Steinbeck's The Chrysanthemums Essay The Chrysanthemums by John Steinbeck is not just a simple short story. Yes it is a short story about a country housewife that lives a boring life and grows beautiful flowers. She is then mislead to believe that a perfect stranger has interest in her flowers and is moved to reveal to him her secrets in growing them and even give him not only some of her prized shoots from the flowers but also some work so that he is given what he originally wanted. She then finds her shoots thrown haphazardly on the side of the road. She begins to ask for wine and becomes very saddened and begins to weep. On the surface it seems like a very superficial story about how a woman could be deceived by a man into believing that he has interest in what she can accomplish. However when one reads the story from a higher critical perspective, especially the last line one realizes how deeply profound the story really is. The last line of the story where the main character Elisa Allen declares that a little wine will be enough and she begins to cry like an old woman reveals that she has grudgingly accepted her lot in life and accepts that she can only experience so much fulfillment due to her position in society and the fact that it has stolen her youth and left her a bitter old woman. Elisa Allen is a strong hardworking woman that is very skilled at growing Chrysanthemums. Her husband recognizes her skill however he does not truly appreciate what is behind it. He instead attempts to encourage her to use her skills for a more practical and therefore supposedly more meaningful endeavor such as growing apple trees. â€Å"Her husband, Henry Allen does not understand her mind; his interest is focused not on the point that she likes to grow it but on the possibility o... ...en, as even her husband had made a joke about taking her there. However she desires to go and although envisioning such bloodshed repulses her it is also alluring. â€Å"In other words, the imbalance between the relatively restricted setting and Elisa's vaulting desire to wander into the unknown territory is chiefly designed to strengthen the overall imagery of Elisa, whose drive to experience the violent outer world.† (Compare Contrast Essay) So she decides to ask if she can have some wine instead and hopes for the excitement it might be able to bring although she knows that whatever momentary excitement it might bring it is not lasting. The next day she will continue to be a bored house wife, with a husband that largely ignores her and is boring and content. Even what she has to work on, the source of pride in her life the Chrysanthemums are meaningless. So she weeps.